January seems to be Arnica month! I uncovered some studies on Arnica montana's role on wound healing. in vitro studies allow us to learn about some possible mechanisms of action for our remedies.
1. "Arnica montana Stimulates Extracellular Matrix Gene Expression in a Macrophage Cell Line Differentiated to Wound-Healing Phenotype" In Public Library of Science, 2016.
2.. "Arnica montana effects on gene expression in a human macrophage cell line. Evaluation by quantitative Real-Time PCR". In Homeopathy Journal, 2016. "This exploratory study provides new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of A. montana as a promoter of healing, since some of the genes it modifies are key regulators of tissue remodeling, inflammation and chemotaxis."
3. "Arnica montana experimental studies: confounders and biases?" Journal of Integrative Medicine 2018. Response to criticisms of in vitro studies.
4. "Homeopathic potencies of Arnica montana L. change gene expression in a Tamm-Horsfall protein-1 cell line in vitro model: the role of ethanol as a possible confounder and statistical bias. [J Integr Med. 2017]